The historic and cultural heritage of the park
The natural landscapes of the natural park “Yugyd va” have experienced little anthropogenic influence mostly due to its distant location and severe climate. Nevertheless the history of human economic activity has affected it considerably.
On the territory of the park there are a lot of cultural heritage sites: the traces of economic activity of different epoques, places of historical importance or related to the beliefs of the original population (natural sites mentioned in legends) etc.
Starting with the Mesolithic, tribes of different linguistic traditions have inhabited the Pechorsky region. In different historic epoques Finno-Ugric and Samoyed groups lived here. People from Priob and Volga-Kamie came to live here, assimilating with the local tribes.
There have been no large-scale archaeological studies on the territory of the park, but there are several archaeological sites – 3 on the Kozym river and 7 on the Podcherie river.
The fishermen’s and hunters’ villages along the banks of the rivers Podcherie and Shchuger played an important role in the history of the Pripechorie exploration. At the beginning of the previous century there were 13 on the Podcherie and 3 on the Shchuger.
The population in the upper flow of the Pechora and its inflows were mostly people of old religious tradition (Old Believers). Some oratories were hidden in the taiga.
One of the most interesting historical sites is the Sibiryakovsky tract built by the manifactuere from Irkutsk A.M. Sibiryakov in 1885 to transport cheap grain from Western Siberia to the Pechorsky region and Western Europe.
The tract was a 180 km cutting and was part of the route which started at the village Shekuria on the Lyapina, the so called “zyriansky route”. It was known in the 15th century, when the ostyaks and the voguls brought the yasaks to Ust-Vym. After the railway from Western Siberia through the Urals to the European part of Russia was built, the tract was abandoned.
Many of the monuments can be called sacral: the “sacred” mountains and stones, sacrificial sites.
The sacral historical and cultural sites often coincide with the natural sites. The ancient people of the region chose outstanding places for sanctuaries, sacrificial places etc – caves and grottos, hill feet and mountain peaks of different shape, stone relics -"bolvany".
The region of the Telpos-iz mountain – the highest peak of the northern Urals - has long had a special significance in the culture of the Predpechorie peoples. It is mentioned in all stories and legends. The name of the mountain means “the nest of the winds” in Komi languages. The local beliefs have it that Voipel, the god of wind and cold, lives on the mountain top, he does not like the noise and does not allow the people to break into his territory.
The mountain Erkusey (“Shaman-gora”) on the Balbanju river can be included in the same group of monuments.
The historical and cultural monuments which are still in use nowadays are especially important. The most interesting sites are related to deer breeding – the deer breeders’ camps in the mountains of the Sub-polar Urals.